Examine explores profiles of COVID-19 vaccines throughout completely different international locations

A latest research posted to the medRxiv* preprint server analyzed the amplitude, time, and opposed occasions (AEs) related to seven coronavirus illness 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines throughout completely different international locations.

Study: Analysis of immunization time, amplitude, and adverse events of seven different vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 across four different countries. Image Credit: Tong_stocker/Shutterstock
Examine: Evaluation of immunization time, amplitude, and opposed occasions of seven completely different vaccines in opposition to SARS-CoV-2 throughout 4 completely different international locations. Picture Credit score: Tong_stocker/Shutterstock

Extreme acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines have performed an crucial function in controlling the COVID-19 pandemic globally. Nonetheless, there have been a number of reviews of AEs following immunization (AEFIs) with COVID-19 vaccines. But, there’s little or no data out there concerning the affiliation of seroconversion with AEFI manifestations.  

In regards to the research

The current research assessed the extent of SARS-CoV-2 antibody response noticed after vaccination with the primary and the second dose of BNT162b2 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA), ChAdOx1-S, mRNA-1273, Ad26.COV2, Ad5-nCoV, Coronavac, and GamCOVID-Vac vaccines. The group evaluated the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) 1 and a pair of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies with earlier medical situations and extreme and systemic opposed occasions (AEs).

This multicentric observational research concerned volunteers who have been totally vaccinated with both of the seven COVID-19 vaccines at 5 hospital facilities from 4 completely different international locations particularly Mexico, Italy, Brazil, and Argentina in 2021. Consenting members of any gender and age have been included within the research whereas people who have been vaccinated earlier than the research have been excluded.

On the vaccination day, the group collected a baseline pattern (T0) from the members, and the primary vaccine dose was administered. The second (T1) and third (T2) samples, respectively, have been obtained 21 days after the primary and the second dose have been administered.

The members answered a questionnaire at every go to. The basal questionnaire acquired the medical historical past and SARS-CoV-2 an infection historical past of the affected person. Questionnaires answered following the primary and second dose vaccinations acknowledged any AEFIs and famous the prevalence of any SARS-CoV-2 an infection after vaccination. New COVID-19 infections among the many members have been additionally monitored utilizing polymerase chain response (PCR) testing.

The first final result of the research was the affiliation of magnitude of SARS-CoV-2 antibody response with vaccinations, contemplating earlier situations and AEFIs. A chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) was used to guage the degrees of anti-S1 and anti-S2 IgG antibodies produced in opposition to SARS-CoV-2 within the plasma samples. For this assay, the outcomes have been categorised as damaging for ranges beneath 12.0 arbitrary models (AU)/ml, indeterminate for ranges between 12.0 AU/ml and 15.0 AU/ml, and constructive for ranges over 15 AU/ml.


The research outcomes confirmed that out of the 1,867 sufferers recruited, 1,352 have been from Mexico, 260 from Brazil, 213 from Argentina, and 42 from Italy. The common age of the members was 52 years and 52% have been males, whereas 30% suffered from weight problems, and 26.8% suffered from hypertension. Additionally, the ChAdOx1-S vaccine was obtained by 666 topics, Coronavac by 582, BNT162b2 mRNA by 289, Gam-COVID-Vac by 213, mRNA-1273 by 65, Ad26.COV2 by 31, and Ad5-nCoV by 19 topics.

Individuals have been deemed SARS-CoV-2 constructive if that they had a PCR-confirmed take a look at or if ranges of particular anti-S1 and anti-S2 IgG antibodies in opposition to SARS-CoV-2 of their samples have been over 15 AU/ml at baseline. Additionally, 627 members reported SARS-CoV-2 an infection earlier than the research, amongst which 24.8% have been vaccinated with ChAdOx1-S, 42.2% with Coronavac, 37.1% with BNT162b2 mRNA, 25.8% with Gam-COVID-Vac, 47.6% with mRNA-1273, 58% with Ad26.COV2, and 26% with Ad5-nCoV.

The naïve sufferers confirmed the very best enhance in antibody ranges after the primary dose of mRNA-1273 vaccination, adopted by BNT162b mRNA and Ad5-nCoV and after the second dose of mRNA-1273, adopted by BNT162b mRNA and Gam-COVID-Vac.

In topics with a historical past of SARS-CoV-2 an infection, the very best enchancment in antibody ranges was noticed post-first dose vaccination with mRNA-1273, adopted by BNT162b mRNA and ChAdOx1-S and after the second dose of mRNA-1273, adopted by Gam-COVID-Vac and BNT162b mRNA. On evaluating BNT162b mRNA and mRNA-1273, the latter induced a better alteration in antibody ranges whereas the remainder of the vaccines confirmed lesser change.

The research famous a minimal of 1 AEFI in 71% of the members publish the administration of the primary BNT162b2 mRNA dose, 93% post-mRNA-1273, 38% post-Gam-COVID-Vac, 42% post-Coronavac, 51% post-ChAdOx1-S, 74% post-Ad5-nCoV, and 81% post-Ad26.COV2. A complete of 65%, 23%, 23%, 88%, and 33% of members had a minimal of 1 AEFI after the second dose vaccination with BNT162b2 mRNA, Gam-COVID-Vac, ChAdOx1-S, mRNA-1273, and Coronavac, respectively.

After receiving the primary dose of BNT162b2 mRNA, Gam-COVID-Vac, ChAdOx1-S, Ad26.COV2, mRNA-1273, Coronavac, and Ad5-nCoV, a complete of 85%, 95%, 67%, 57%, 80%, 84%, and 93% of the sufferers reported “very delicate” or “delicate” signs, respectively. After the administration of the second dose of BNT162b2 mRNA, Gam-COVID-Vac, ChAdOx1-S, mRNA-1273, and Coronavac, nearly 82%, 98%, 76%, 49%, and 89% of the sufferers had “very delicate” or “delicate” signs, respectively.


To summarize, the research findings confirmed that the magnitude of SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion was depending on the age, sort of vaccine, and historical past of SARS-CoV-2 an infection. Additionally, the AEFIs have been correlated with age, gender, and sort of vaccine and positively related to antibody responses.

*Essential discover

medRxiv publishes preliminary scientific reviews that aren’t peer-reviewed and, due to this fact, shouldn’t be considered conclusive, information medical apply/health-related conduct, or handled as established data.

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